Prediction methods for soft tissue structures in forensic facial reconstruction: A review for reconstruction of nose, eyes, mouth and ears

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Sonali Kadam
Bhavana Murjani
Easwaran Ramaswami
Vijayalaxmi Nimma
Rohini Bhosale
Pranoti Kausadikar
Reshma Saju

Abstract

Facial reconstruction is an art and science in the field of forensics which involves construction of a recognizable face on unknown skull remains. It appears as a, metaphorically speaking “shining beacon of hope” after everything else fails for identification of the remains. Both, 2D and 3D methods of facial reconstruction have been developed for this process. The database of facial soft tissue thickness based on gender, ethnicity and age, at certain bilateral and unilateral anatomical points on skull bones, lay foundation to the process of reanimating the facial profile of a deceased. Several imaging modalities have been used for the collection of this data, in addition to the cadavers and various guidelines have been given for the reconstruction of the soft tissues, however, to construct soft tissue structures like nose, eyes, mouth and ears which take an important position in determination of the facial features is still a tedious task. This process is being researched since a century and multiple guidelines for reconstruction of the soft tissue structures are available. The face plays out based on the method used; hence selection of an appropriate method is vital. This review encompasses the various methods/guidelines derived for the reconstruction of the nose, eyes, mouth and ears of the face. In addition to the traditional methods given by Gerasimov, Krogman, Prokopec and Ubelaker, George, etc. other newer methods have been mentioned. This review also highlights assessment studies performed using the said methods in populations other than the ones they were derived from.

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How to Cite
Kadam, S., Murjani, B., Ramaswami, E., Nimma, V., Bhosale, R., Kausadikar, P., & Saju, R. (2020). Prediction methods for soft tissue structures in forensic facial reconstruction: A review for reconstruction of nose, eyes, mouth and ears. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ETHICS, TRAUMA & VICTIMOLOGY, 6(01), 31-39. https://doi.org/10.18099/10.18099/ijetv.v6i01.6
Section
Research Article